How do you stop pipes from freezing? And how do you thaw frozen pipes?

Leada Gore (TNS)

Much of the country is bracing for a round of frigid temperatures.

How cold?

The National Weather Service has warned that this week has the potential for “the coldest air of the season” for two-thirds of the country.

In York County, that means highs in the low 20s for Christmas Eve and Christmas Day, and lows around 12 starting Friday night, according to the NWS.

With the bitter cold comes chances for frozen pipes. Water expands as it freezes and the expansion can put pressure on whatever is containing it, including metal or plastic pipes. Those pipes can then burst.

Pipes that are most risk of freezing are those exposed to severe cold, such as outdoor hose bibs, swimming pool supply lines and water sprinkler lines. Also at risk are water supply pipes in unheated interior areas like basements and crawl spaces, attics, garages, or kitchen cabinets or pipes that run against exterior walls that have little or no insulation.

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The Red Cross has some tips on how to protect your pipes from freezing:

  • Drain water from swimming pool and water sprinkler supply lines following manufacturer’s or installer’s directions. Do not put antifreeze in these lines unless directed. Antifreeze is environmentally harmful and is dangerous to humans, pets, wildlife and landscaping.
  • Remove, drain and store hoses used outdoors. Close inside valves supplying outdoor hose bibs. Open the outside hose bibs to allow water to drain. Keep the outside valve open so that any water remaining in the pipe can expand without causing the pipe to break.
  • Add insulation to attics, basements and crawl spaces. Insulation will maintain higher temperatures in these areas.
  • Check around the home for other areas where water supply lines are located in unheated areas. Look in the garage, and under kitchen and bathroom cabinets. Both hot and cold water pipes in these areas should be insulated.
  • Consider installing specific products made to insulate water pipes like a “pipe sleeve” or installing UL-listed “heat tape,” “heat cable,” or similar materials on exposed water pipes. Newspaper can provide some degree of insulation and protection to exposed pipes — even a quarter-inch of newspaper can provide significant protection in areas that usually do not have frequent or prolonged temperatures below freezing.
  • Consider relocating exposed pipes to provide increased protection from freezing.
FILE - In this Feb. 3, 2011 file photo, ice coats leaking pipes in a downtown Cleveland alley, in Ohio. With much of the nation gripped in record cold at some point this winter, homeowners have had to deal with pipes freezing, and then bursting. Damage from a burst pipe can vary greatly, depending on the amount of time that the water runs unabated. (AP Photo/Mark Duncan, File)

How to prevent frozen pipes:

  • Keep garage doors closed if there are water supply lines in the garage.
  • Open kitchen and bathroom cabinet doors to allow warmer air to circulate around the plumbing. Be sure to move any harmful cleaners and household chemicals out of the reach of children.
  • When the weather is very cold outside, let the cold water drip from the faucet served by exposed pipes. Running water through the pipe — even at a trickle — helps prevent pipes from freezing.
  • Keep the thermostat set to the same temperature both during the day and at night. By temporarily suspending the use of lower nighttime temperatures, you may incur a higher heating bill, but you can prevent a much more costly repair job if pipes freeze and burst.
  • If you will be going away during cold weather, leave the heat on in your home, set to a temperature no lower than 55° F.

How to thaw frozen pipes:

  • If you turn on a faucet and only a trickle comes out, suspect a frozen pipe. Likely places for frozen pipes include against exterior walls or where your water service enters your home through the foundation.
  • Keep the faucet open. As you treat the frozen pipe and the frozen area begins to melt, water will begin to flow through the frozen area. Running water through the pipe will help melt ice in the pipe.
  • Apply heat to the section of pipe using an electric heating pad wrapped around the pipe, an electric hair dryer, a portable space heater (kept away from flammable materials) or by wrapping pipes with towels soaked in hot water. Do not use a blowtorch, kerosene or propane heater, charcoal stove or other open flame device.
  • Apply heat until full water pressure is restored. If you are unable to locate the frozen area, if the frozen area is not accessible, or if you can not thaw the pipe, call a licensed plumber.
  • Check all other faucets in your home to find out if you have additional frozen pipes. If one pipe freezes, others may freeze, too.