The "Mean Girls" and "Freaky Friday" star was arrested at 4 a.m. and charged with third-degree assault.
She left a police precinct nearly four hours later with a black jacket pulled over her head. Lohan was wearing leggings, a green mini dress and high-heels. She drove off in a black SUV with a driver, a woman and another man who was seen going in and out of the precinct.
Lohan, 26, allegedly got into the spat with another woman at Club Avenue, in Manhattan's Chelsea section. She struck the woman in the face with her hand, police said. The woman did not require medical attention.
Lohan's attorney, Shawn Holley, did not immediately return messages seeking comment.
The charges come just after Lohan's portrayal of Elizabeth Taylor in the Lifetime movie "Liz & Dick" premiered to harsh reviews from critics and the public.
After the June crash, the actress told police her assistant was driving, but detectives determined Lohan was behind the wheel, police said. Prosecutors charged her with three misdemeanors: providing false information to police, reckless driving and willfully obstructing a police officer from their duties. No date for Lohan's arraignment was announced, but the charges are likely to trigger a probation violation for a 2011 necklace theft case.
Lohan's newest arrest is her latest brush with law enforcement in New York City.
She was involved in a New York Police Department investigation in September after alleging a man had assaulted her in a New York hotel, but charges against the man were later dropped.
Also in September, the actress was accused of clipping a man with her car outside another Manhattan nightclub, but prosecutors chose not to move ahead with charges.
In October, police were called to her childhood home on Long Island after a report of a fight between her and her mother. An investigation revealed "no criminality."
The Los Angeles case comes nearly six months after the actress crashed while on her way to a movie set. She was taken to the hospital but returned to the set of the film "Liz and Dick" hours later.
Lohan has become more of a tabloid and courthouse mainstay in recent years than an actress, and her crash while on the way to the set of "Liz and Dick" demonstrated the risk of casting her in films. A week after the accident, paramedics were summoned to Lohan's hotel room in an episode her publicist attributed to exhaustion and dehydration, and shooting on the film was again briefly delayed.
In May, she was cleared of allegations that she struck a Hollywood nightclub manager with her car.
She recently filmed "The Canyons," an indie film written by "Less Than Zero" and "American Psycho" author Bret Easton Ellis.