The court says Thaksin was aware of Thursday's hearing, at which his 26 co-defendants all appeared. His case was postponed indefinitely.
The defendants are charged with malfeasance for allowing government-owned Krung Thai Bank to lend about 11.58 billion baht ($377 million) to property developer Krisdamahanakorn Plc. The company was barred from such loans because of failure to repay previous debts.
Thaksin was ousted by a 2006 military coup after being accused of corruption. He fled abroad to avoid a two-year jail term on a 2008 conflict of interest conviction. He remains in self-exile.