An attorney for Oberst filed the civil lawsuit in a Manhattan federal court. The suit claims the woman behind the accusations was a liar who made "despicable, false, outrageous, and defamatory statements" about Oberst last December.
The Associated Press generally does not name people who say they were sexually assaulted.
Oberst's lawsuit says the woman posted accusations that Oberst raped her a decade ago in North Carolina after his brother, her middle school English teacher, introduced the two at an Oberst show. The lawsuit says she also claimed Oberst punched her in the face and that she was 16 at the time.
Oberst, an Omaha, Neb., resident best known for his work with Bright Eyes, is seeking monetary damages, attorney fees and other costs.
He says the media coverage that resulted from the three posts in the comments section of a blog has damaged his career, especially in New York where most of the major music publishing houses are headquartered. He says he was in the company of his brother, bandmates or then-girlfriend at the time of the claims. The suit also says the woman who made positive social media comments about Oberst in the past decade.
According to the lawsuit, the woman said in the posts that she never reported the assault because of the way her own family and friends reacted to the accusations.
The attorney for Oberst did not return a message seeking comment.
The woman didn't immediately respond to messages seeking comment sent through her social media account. It's not clear if she has an attorney.