The magnitude 4.5 earthquake struck shortly after midnight and was centered about 23 miles (37 kilometers) southeast of Montreal, said Natural Resources Canada seismologist Allison Bent in Ottawa.
The quake caused some buildings to rumble for a few seconds, sending people scurrying briefly from their houses. There were no immediate reports of any injuries.
Bent said any serious damage was unlikely.
"Based on the size of the earthquake, I wouldn't expect there would be any," Bent said. "It is possible it's big enough (to) have shaken objects off tables or it's possible there's a little bit of damage."
Bent said there were reports that a few people in the Ottawa area felt the quake as well as residents of the Montreal region.
Dominique Anglade, a member of Montreal's large Haitian community, said on Twitter that she felt the quake and it evoked "very bad memories" of Haiti's devastating 2010 earthquake that killed her parents.
Bent said the quake occurred in an area known as the West Quebec seismic zone and temblors are not uncommon in the region.
"It's just a reminder that this is a seismically active area," Bent said.